Clock Tower

Out of the Clock Tower

Hello and welcome to the Greene County Archives' blog, "Out of the Clock Tower".  Please join us as we share information on archival issues, news, special events, and highlights from our collection.

Before the archives program began in Greene County in 1996, permanent records were stored in every conceivable space, in basements, garages, and closets. Usually they were in boxes of various shapes and sizes, although seldom adequately labeled, but occasionally they were just in loose piles of books and papers. Most notable were the old records stuffed into the clock tower of the County Courthouse, where they shared their home with pigeon droppings.

Now, there is a clean, environmentally controlled, well appointed location for the county archives, where our historical records are housed in standard sized boxes on steel shelves. We have taken note of their journey in the name for our blog.

Nov 16

Black Roots: Birth Locations of Ohio's Free Blacks by Amy Brickey

Posted on November 16, 2018 at 12:54 PM by Melissa Dalton

When Ohio was formed out of the Northwest Territory, it was decided that the state would be a free state, meaning Ohio would not allow the practice of slavery. As such, Ohio became somewhat of a beacon of hope for enslaved African Americans, and even for free African Americans living in the South. I have recently been working on a Story Map creation that uses census data from 1850 and 1860 to trace the birth locations of the African Americans listed on those censuses. The Story Map is an extension of my internship here at the Greene County Archives that ties into another Story Map I created for my Fellowship with the Ohio Historical Records Advisory Board (OHRAB). The counties include the eleven counties surveyed during the OHRAB Fellowship: Auglaize, Champaigne, Clark, Darke, Greene, Logan, Preble, Mercer, Miami, Montgomery, and Shelby.

The numbers for all the counties were incredible, but Greene County stood out as having the highest free Black population of all the counties for both 1850 and 1860. In 1850, 647 free African American men, women, and children were listed on the census. They had come to Greene County from places as close as Kentucky, and places as far away as Louisiana. 77% of the entire free Black population was living within the City of Xenia itself, an outstanding 500 individuals. It is possible that formerly enslaved people knew about Xenia because of Tawawa Springs, a resort where slave owners could bring enslaved women, which is the present site of Wilberforce University. There are also seven names on the 1850 census that appear in the Manumission Records here at the Archives. Those names are: James Battles, James Battles, Jr., John Battles, Wilson Battles, Agnes Brown, William Brown, and William Roberts.

The free African American population in Greene County continued to flourish, reaching 1,470 individuals by the time the 1860 census was taken. While the population had slowly spread out from the City of Xenia, birth locations were starting to become more widespread as well. People were coming from as far away as Texas, Connecticut, and the brand new state of Iowa. Perhaps the most surprising birth location recorded on the census was for a 40 year old man named James Marshall who stated he was born in Port-Au-Prince, Haiti. By this time, Wilberforce University had been established after being bought by the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1856, and was successfully educating much of the Black population in and around Xenia. This successful institution likely had a hand in bringing more African Americans to Greene County for permanent settlement.

If you would like to see the Story Map for yourself and read about some Black History in Greene County, as well as some surrounding counties, please feel free to visit by clicking: Thanks for reading, and remember to contact us if you have any additional questions!

Until Next Time...
Nov 09

Property Research 101: Using Greene County Records

Posted on November 9, 2018 at 8:45 AM by Melissa Dalton

Have you ever attempted to do research on your property or tried to do a house history? Did you quickly learn that it is a long, and involved, process? More than once, we have undoubtedly crushed someone’s spirits when they came in asking “for all our records on” fill in the blank. Unfortunately, we do not house our records in such a way, and there is a process to doing property research. This week, we would like to highlight Greene County records that are useful when conducting property research, as well as provide a guide we created to assist our patrons in their research.

When thinking of property research, one of our most widely used records are the Tax duplicates, which date from 1806 through 2007 (Fig 1). These records are essential for property research, and list landowners by township and/or city. Tax records also indicate location of property, when property was bought/sold and by whom, and sometimes they demonstrate when buildings were added or if there was a loss. In some of the records (which date from 1826-1930, but are incomplete), taxable personal property might be identified as well (person owns cattle, carriage, etc).

Fig 1. Example of tax record (JPG)
Fig 1. Example of tax records

Another valuable resource are the deed records and indexes. The Archives holds the deed records from 1803 through 1864, as well as the indexes (on microfilm) from 1803 through 1909, however, these are incomplete. Deed records provide researchers the legal description of the property, value of property, when property was bought/sold and by whom, and these records allow researchers to trace the history of the property (Fig 2). Many times, researchers use the tax duplicates in conjunction with the deed records to identify and trace the property through time. We also house a small sampling of the mortgage records, dating from 1939 through 1959, which also can be used with the tax and deed records.

Fig 2. Example of deed record (JPG)
Fig 2. Example of deed records

Engineer Maps are a great resource in property research as well. These records provide a visual illustration of the property, which include names of property owners, names of streets and other landmarks, property boundaries, and sometimes where buildings were located on the property. The Archives houses county maps dating from 1870 through 2001.

Fig 3. Example of engineer map (JPG)
Fig 3. Example of engineer maps

Survey records provide much of the same information as the engineer maps – names of landowners, names of neighbors or adjacent property – but these records also furnish the researcher with legal descriptions and land features, and many times, a sketch of the property (Fig 4). You may have noticed that we highlight one Greene County Surveyor every week on Facebook with our Fieldbook Friday posts. Washington Galloway was the surveyor from 1840 through the 1880s, and we have many of his fieldbooks from that time frame. Additionally, we have the survey records from 1792 through 1995. Frequently we use the Greene County Atlases with the survey records to gain a better understanding of the property. The atlases we have available are from 1855, 1874, and 1896.

Fig 4. Example of survey record (JPG)
Fig 4. Example of survey records

In last week’s blog, we discussed records useful for genealogy, and there are two types of records that are quite beneficial in property research. The first are the will and estate records. These records provide the researcher with the value of property, changes in ownership, and how property has been passed down through generations. These records date from 1803 through 2017.

The second type are our Common Pleas Court records. Disputes of land ownership, and petitions to partition land, can be found in the Common Pleas records. These petitions might be due to dower rights, disputes over property lines, partitions of land for heirs, and part of divorce proceedings. These records vary, but date from 1804 through 1981.

Lastly, we have a terrific guide to researching Greene County properties, which you can access here. And remember, if you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact us! We are here to help and serve!

Until Next Time…
Nov 02

Using Greene County Records for Genealogy Research

Posted on November 2, 2018 at 12:37 PM by Melissa Dalton

We have many people who stop in the Archives hoping to do family histories. Although we do not have personal collections, many of our records are incredibly useful when conducting your research. This week, we thought we could offer some advice on places to go and records to consider when doing your genealogy.

Some of the most requested records are birth and death records. Here in Greene County, our records date from 1869 through 1909; however, not all births and deaths were recorded regularly, so if someone never got to town to report it, it may have gone unrecorded. These records can provide valuable information, such as names of parents, location of birth/death, date of birth/date, cause of death, and age at death (Fig 1). Please note that all birth and death records after 1909 are held at the Greene County Combined Health District.

Fig 1. Example of Birth records (JPG)
Fig 1. Example of Death records (JPG)
Fig 1. Example of birth/death records

Another one of our frequently requested records are marriage records. These records date from 1803 through 2012. Unfortunately, early marriage records do not include the names of parents, and it is not until 1899 that these names appear in the records. These records can provide information such as names of bride and groom, date of marriage, name of the officiant, previous marriages/divorces, and if any children from previous marriage (Fig 2). It should be noted, however, that up until the late 1970s, the law required the marriage license be obtained from the county of residence of the bride. It does not matter which county one was married, but where the license was obtained. This is important to keep in mind when looking for marriage records.

Fig 2. Example of Marriage records (JPG)
Fig 2. Example of marriage records

Wills, estates, and guardianships can provide valuable insight in the family history, and our records date from 1803 through 2017. These records provide names and relationships of family members, indicate ownership of property, and cane provide an interesting look into family dynamics (family feuds/disputes, etc.) (Fig 3). We actually have a blog that was written earlier this year that shows just the type of family disputes one might run across in these records (link to blog).

Fig 3. Example of Estate records (JPG)
Fig 3. Example of will/estate records

An unconventional record to check might be our Commissioners’ Minutes, which date from 1803 through 1995. There may be times one knows their family lived in a particular area, but they never owned property. Family surnames are provided in meeting minutes for various reasons, so you may have success locating a family member in these records.

Common Pleas Court Records are another great resource. The time range for these records varies based on the type of record, but the overall range is 1804 through 1981. These records provide research information about divorces, financial cases, petitions for partition of land, and criminal cases.

One of our most valuable resources are our manumission/emancipation records (Fig 4). These records document the freed blacks living in Greene County from 1805 through 1861. Emancipation/manumission records can demonstrate where family members were born and/or living prior to being emancipated, as well as physical descriptions, and personal comments of owners.

Fig 4. Example of Emancipation/Manumission records (JPG)
Fig 4. Example of Emancipation/Manumission Records

One type of record people may not know we have are naturalization records. These were found in the Common Please minutes/journals from 1822 through 1958. They indicate names, country of origin/allegiance, date of arrival, country of residence, and date they became a citizen (Fig 5).

Fig 5. Example of Naturalization records (JPG)
Fig 5. Example of Naturalization records

The Greene County Records Center and Archives has many wonderful resources for genealogists. Many of these records are now available on FamilySearch, which offers users free access with the creation of an account. Additionally, we provide a full inventory on our website, and I highly recommend you check it out when beginning your research. Also remember, you are more than welcome to contact us at the Greene County Archives with any questions!

Next week, we will provide information about records useful to conduct property research, so be sure to check back next Friday!

Until Next Time…